AKP健食天

Intuitive knowledge and its development

直觉知识及其发展

by Raymond Peat

Understanding consciousness is necessary for understanding life. Variations of consciousness, such as dementia, depression, delusion, or insight, originality, curiosity have to be understood biologically.

To understand our ability to know and discover, I think it's valuable to consider foolishness along with wisdom, since “knowledge” consists of both. Scientists have been notorious for opposing new discoveries, but the mental rigidity of old age is so general, and well known, that many people have believed that it was caused by the death of brain cells. Individual cells do tend to become less adaptive with aging, and metabolism generally slows down with aging, but even relatively young and mentally quick people are susceptible to losing their ability to understand new ideas.

I think our use of language is both the means by which understanding can be preserved, encapsulated, and disseminated, and a great impediment to understanding. At first, words are continuous with the intuitive framework in which they are learned, but they gradually become relatively independent and abstract. Things can be learned without directly experiencing them. Even though words gradually change through use, the simple fact that they have a degree of dependability allows them to function even when there is no active thought. Uncritical listening is possible, and if a person can say something, it seems to be easy to believe that it's true. By the age of 25, our language has usually given us many assumptions about the nature of the world.

理解意识是理解生命的必要条件。意识的变化,如痴呆,抑郁,妄想,或洞察力,独创性,好奇心必须从生物学上理解。

为了理解我们的认知和发现能力,我认为把愚蠢和智慧结合起来考虑是很有价值的,因为“知识”是由两者组成的。科学家们因反对新发现而臭名昭著,但老年人的精神僵化是如此普遍和众所周知,以至于许多人认为它是由脑细胞死亡引起的。个体细胞确实会随着年龄的增长而变得不那么适应,新陈代谢也会随着年龄的增长而减慢,但即使是相对年轻和思维敏捷的人也容易失去理解新思想的能力。

我认为,我们对语言的使用既是理解得以保存、概括和传播的手段,也是理解的一大障碍。单词在最初的学习框架中是连续的,但逐渐变得相对独立和抽象。无需直接体验,也能学到东西。尽管词汇在使用过程中会逐渐发生变化,但它们具有一定程度的可靠性这一简单事实使它们即使在没有积极思考的情况下也能发挥作用。不加批判的倾听是可能的,如果一个人能说些什么,似乎很容易相信它是真的。25岁时,我们的语言通常会给我们很多关于世界本质的假设。

Verbal formulations of one sort are given up for new verbal formulations, in the process called education. Sometimes graduate students seem to have lost all common sense. It's as if their hard-drive had been reformatted to allow their professors to download onto it. But common sense, usually, is just what Einstein called it, an accumulation of prejudices.

Children learn language so easily that many people have seriously believed that a certain language was inherited by people of each ethnic group. Bilingual people were thought to be intellectually inferior (though it turned out that bilingualism actually increases a person's mental abilities–possibly because of the brain development known to be produced by learning1.) Eventually, people learned that the children of immigrants were as capable of learning the language of the new country as the native children were.

Then, explaining the mystery of language learning took a new form, that didn't seem foolish to most professional anthropologists and linguists. The first and most important step in the new theory was to declare that simple learning theory was inadequate to explain the development of language. Language developed, just as the silly racial theory had thought, out of our genetic endowment, except that what we inherited was now said to be a Universal Language, with its Universal Rules embedded in our chromosomes. Then, the speed with which children learn language was to be explained as the “innateness” of all of the complex stuff of language, with only a few things needing to be actually learned–those minor details that distinguish English from Eskimo or Zapotec.

Although the phrase “genetic epistemology” was coined by Jean Piaget, a major philosophical and scientific theme of the 20th century has been the idea that the “forms” of knowledge, for perceiving space, or logical relations, or language patterns, are derived from our genes, and that they are somehow built into the arrangement of our brain cells so that we spontaneously think in certain ways, and don't have the capacity to transcend the nature of our inherited brain. In that view, children have their own pre-logical way of thinking, and their thought (and language development) must proceed through certain stages, each governed by some “structural” process in the nervous system. The only thing wrong with the idea of innate knowledge is that people use it to tell us what we can't know, in other words, to rationalize stupidity. Of course, they wouldn't like to phrase it that way, because they consider their “genetic epistemology of symbolic forms” to be the essence and the totality of intelligence, and that people who allow their thoughts to be structured entirely by experience are just confused.

Years ago, I had been criticizing Noam Chomsky's theory of language so much, that I thought I might have misjudged or inappropriately depreciated his general attitude toward consciousness, so I asked him some questions about the intelligence of animals. His response confirmed my view that he subscribed to the most extreme form of “genetic epistemology”:

“I don't know whether there is a common animal ability to manipulate images and generalize. In fact, I doubt it very much. Thus the kind of “generalization” that leads to knowledge of lanugage from sensory experience seems to me to involve principles such as those of universal grammar as an innate property, for reasons I have explained elsewhere, and I see no reason to believe that these principles underlie generalization in other animals. Nor do I think that the kinds of generalization that lead a bird to gain knowledge of how to build a nest, or to sing its song, or to orient itself spatially, are necessarily part of the human ability to generalize.”

一种语言形式被放弃,取而代之的是新的语言形式,这个过程叫做教育。有时研究生们似乎已经失去了所有的常识。就好像他们的硬盘被重新格式化了,这样他们的教授就可以下载了。但是常识,通常就是爱因斯坦所说的,是偏见的积累。

孩子们学习语言是如此容易,以至于许多人都认真地认为某种语言是由每个种族的人继承的。会讲两种语言的人被认为智力低下(尽管事实证明,使用两种语言实际上可以提高一个人的心理能力——这可能是因为众所周知,大脑的发育是由学习产生的)。最后,人们发现移民的孩子和当地的孩子一样有能力学习新国家的语言。

然后,解释语言学习的奥秘采取了一种新的形式,这在大多数专业人类学家和语言学家看来并不愚蠢。新理论的第一步,也是最重要的一步,是宣布简单学习理论不足以解释语言的发展。正如愚蠢的种族理论所认为的那样,语言的发展源于我们的遗传禀赋,只不过我们所继承的现在被认为是一种通用语言,它的通用规则嵌在我们的染色体中。然后,儿童学习语言的速度被解释为所有语言复杂东西的“先天”,只有少数东西需要真正学习——那些细微的细节,将英语与爱斯基摩语或萨波特克语区分开来。

尽管“遗传认识论”一词是由皮亚杰创造的,但20世纪一个主要的哲学和科学主题一直认为,用于感知空间、逻辑关系或语言模式的知识的“形式”源自我们的基因,它们在某种程度上被植入了我们的脑细胞,所以我们自发地以某种方式思考,而没有能力超越我们遗传的大脑的本质。按照这种观点,儿童有自己的前逻辑思维方式,他们的思维(和语言发展)必须经历一定的阶段,每个阶段都受到神经系统中某些“结构性”过程的控制。先天知识的唯一错误之处在于,人们用它来告诉我们不知道的东西,换句话说,给愚蠢找借口。当然,他们不愿意这么说,因为他们认为他们的“符号形式的遗传认识论”是智力的本质和全部,而那些允许自己的思想完全由经验构成的人只是感到困惑。

多年前,我一直在批评诺姆·乔姆斯基(Noam Chomsky)的语言理论,我想我可能错误地判断或不恰当地贬低了他对意识的总体态度,所以我问了他一些关于动物智力的问题。他的回答证实了我的观点,即他赞同“遗传认识论”最极端的形式:

“我不知道是否存在一种共同的动物操纵图像和归纳的能力。事实上,我很怀疑。这样的“泛化”导致的知识lanugage从感官体验对我来说涉及如普遍语法原则作为一个天生的属性,其他原因我已经解释过了,我认为没有理由相信这些原则基础概括在其他动物。我也不认为这种导致鸟类获得如何筑巢、唱歌或空间定位的知识的一般化,是人类一般化能力的一部分。”

All of the textbooks that I have seen that discuss the issue of animal intelligence have taken a position like that of Chomsky–that any knowledge animals have is either rigidly instinctual, or else is just a set of movements that have been mechanically learned. In other words, there isn't anything intelligent about the complex things that animals may do. Konrad Lorenz and the ethologists explained animal behavior in terms of chains of reflexes that are “triggered” by certain sensations or perceptions. This claim that animals' behavior just consists of mechanical chains of reflexes strictly follows Descartes' doctrine, and Chomsky has consistently acknowledged that his theory is Cartesian. The claim that children have their own non-logical way of understanding things is very similar to the doctrine about animals, in the way it limits real rational understanding to adult human beings.

The awareness of young animals is particularly impressive to me, because we know the short time they have had in which to learn about the world. Any instance in which a young animal understands a completely novel situation, in a way that is fully adequate and workable, demonstrates that it is capable of intellectual generalization.

Beyond that, I think animal inventiveness can teach us about our own capacity for inventiveness, which both the genetic and the behaviorist theories of knowledge totally fail to explain.

Spiders that build architecturally beautiful webs have been favorite subjects for theorizing about the instinctive mechanisms of behavior. When spiders were sent up on an orbiting satellite, they were in a situation that spiders had never experienced before. Spiders have always taken advantage of gravity for building their webs, and at first, the orbiting spiders made strange little muddled arrangements of filaments, but after just a few attempts, they were able to build exactly the same sort of elegant structures that spiders normally build. (My interpretation of that was that spiders may be more intelligent than most neurobiologists.)

我看过的所有讨论动物智力问题的教科书都采取了乔姆斯基的立场——动物的任何知识要么是严格的本能,要么只是机械学习的一系列动作。换句话说,动物可能做的复杂事情没有任何智慧可言。康拉德·洛伦茨和动物行为学家用特定感觉或知觉“触发”的反射链来解释动物的行为。这种认为动物行为只是由机械的反射链组成的说法严格遵循了笛卡尔的学说,乔姆斯基也一直承认他的理论是笛卡尔的。儿童有自己的非逻辑的理解方式,这与关于动物的学说非常相似,因为它限制了成人真正的理性理解。

幼小动物的意识给我留下了特别深刻的印象,因为我们知道它们了解世界的时间很短。任何情况下,幼小的动物理解一个完全新奇的情况,以一种完全充分和可行的方式,表明它有智力概括的能力。

除此之外,我认为动物的发明能力可以教会我们自己的发明能力,这是遗传学和行为主义知识理论都无法解释的。

蜘蛛能织出漂亮的蜘蛛网,这一直是人们最喜欢研究的主题。当蜘蛛被送上轨道卫星时,它们处于蜘蛛从未经历过的境地。蜘蛛总是利用重力来织网,起初,在轨道上运行的蜘蛛会用奇怪的、小而混乱的细丝排列,但经过几次尝试后,它们就能织出与蜘蛛通常织出的完全相同的优雅结构。(我的解释是,蜘蛛可能比大多数神经生物学家更聪明。)

Nesting birds often swoop at people or animals who get too close to their nest. Early last summer, I had noticed some blue jays that seemed to be acting defensive whenever I went into one part of the yard. On a very hot day at the end of summer, a couple of plump jays were squawking and apparently trying to get my attention while I was watering the front yard, and I idly wondered why they would be acting that way so late in the year. I had gone around the house to water things in the back yard, and the birds came over the house, and were still squawking, and trying to get my attention. I realized that their excitement didn't have anything to do with their nest, and looking more carefully, I saw that they were young birds. As it dawned on me that they were interested in the water squirting out of the hose, I aimed the stream up towards them, and they got as close to it as they could. Since the force of the stream might have hurt them, I put on a nozzle that made a finer spray, and the birds immediately came down to the lowest tip of the branch, where they could get the full force of the mist, holding out their wings, and leaning into the spray so that it ruffled their breast feathers. Their persistence had finally paid off when they got me to understand what they wanted, and they were enjoying the cool water. As new young birds, I don't know how they understood hoses and squirting water, but it was clear that they recognized me as a potentially intelligent being with whom they could communicate.

For a person, that wouldn't have seemed like a tremendously inventive response to the hot weather, but for young birds that hadn't been out of the nest for long, it made it clear to me that there is more inventive intelligence in the world than is apparent to most academic psychologists and ethologists.

Early porpoise researchers were surprised when a porpoise understood a sequence in which one tone was followed by two, and then by three, and answered by producing a series of four tones. The porpoise had discovered that people knew how to count.

Experiments with bees show the same sort of understanding of numbers and intentions. An experimenter set out dishes of honey in a sequence, doubling the distance each time. After the first three dishes had been found by scouts, the bees showed up at the fourth location before the honey arrived, extrapolating from the experimenter's previous behavior and inferring his intentions.

筑巢的鸟经常猛扑离巢太近的人或动物。去年初夏,我注意到每当我走进院子的某一处时,有些蓝松鸦似乎在自卫。夏末的一个非常炎热的日子里,几只胖乎乎的松鸦在叽叽喳喳地叫着,显然是想在我给前院浇水的时候引起我的注意,我漫不经心地想知道它们为什么在这么晚的时候还会这样。我在屋子里转了一圈,在后院给东西浇水,那些鸟飞过屋子,还在叽叽喳喳地叫,想引起我的注意。我意识到它们的兴奋与它们的巢没有任何关系,更仔细地看,我发现它们是幼鸟。当我意识到它们对水管里喷出的水很感兴趣时,我把水流对准了它们,它们就尽可能地靠近了水。自的力量流可能会伤害他们,我把喷嘴,细喷雾,和鸟儿立即下来最低的分支,在那里他们可以得到充分的雾,伸出翅膀,倾斜到喷雾,折边乳房羽毛。他们的坚持终于有了回报,他们让我明白了他们想要什么,他们正在享受清凉的海水。作为新生的小鸟,我不知道它们是如何理解水管和喷水的,但很明显,它们认识到我是一个潜在的智慧生物,它们可以和我交流。

对于一个人来说,这不会像一个非常创新应对炎热的天气,但是对于年轻的鸟类,长时间没有出巢,我明确表示,世界上有更多的创造性智力明显比大多数学术心理学家和行为学家。

当海豚理解了一个音调之后是两个,然后是三个的序列,并通过发出一系列四个音调来回答时,早期的海豚研究人员感到惊讶。海豚发现人们会数数。

用蜜蜂做的实验也显示出对数字和意图的同样理解。一名实验者按顺序摆放几碟蜂蜜,每隔一段时间将距离增加一倍。在侦察员发现了前三道菜后,蜜蜂在蜂蜜到达之前就出现在了第四个地点,这是根据实验者之前的行为推断和推断他的意图。

Once I noticed that an ant seemed to be dozing at the base of every maple leaf, and that there were several aphids on each leaf. I was getting very close, trying to understand why the ant was sitting so quietly. Apparently my odor gave the ant a start, and he leaped into activity, racing up the leaf, and giving each aphid a tap as he passed. When he had reached the end of the leaf and had touched every aphid, his agitation suddenly disappeared, and he returned to his spot at the base of the leaf. Although I knew that ants could count very well, as demonstrated by experiments in which an ant had to describe a complex route to a dish of honey, it was the apparent emotion that interested me. It reminded me of the hostess who counted her dishes before the guests left.

When the brains of such different kinds of animal work in such similar ways, in situations that contain many new components, I don't think it's possible to conclude anything except that intelligence is a common property of animals, and that it comprises “generalization” and much more. It's obvious that they grasp the situation in a realistic way. The situation has structured their awareness. Some people might say that they have “modeled the situation in their mind,” but it's enough to say that they understand what's going on. With that understanding, motivations and intentions form part of the perception, since the situation is a developing process. Ordinarily, we say that we “infer” motivations and intentions and “deduce” probable outcomes, but that implies that the situation is static, rather than continuous with its origin and outcome. In reality, these understandings and expectations are part of the direct perception. It isn't a matter of “intelligence” operating upon “sensations,” but of intelligence inhering in the grasping of the situation. (In Latin, intelligo meant “I perceive.” I suspect that a Roman might have perceived the word intelligens as being derived from roots such as tele–from Greek, or tela, web, warp thread–and ligo or lego, connoting the binding in or gathering of what is distant or extended.)

This view of a generalized animal intelligence wouldn't seem strange, except that the history of official western philosophy, the doctrine of genetic determinism in biology, and the habits that form with the rigid uses of language, have offered another way of looking at it. The simple intelligence of an animal would disrupt all of that important stuff, so it has become mandatory to dismiss all examples of intelligent behavior by animals as “mere anthropomorphizing.” Sadly, this has also meant that most intelligent behavior by humans has also been dismissed.

有一次,我注意到,好像每片枫叶的底部都有一只蚂蚁在打盹,而每片枫叶上都有几只蚜虫。我离得很近,想弄明白为什么蚂蚁这么安静地坐着。显然,我的气味把蚂蚁吓了一跳,它跳了起来,在树叶上奔跑,每经过一只蚜虫都拍一下。当他摸到叶子的末端,摸过每一只蚜虫后,他的激动突然消失了,他回到了叶子底部的位置。虽然我知道蚂蚁可以很好地数数,在实验中,一只蚂蚁必须描述一条复杂的路线到一盘蜂蜜,但这明显的情感吸引了我。这使我想起了那位在客人离开前数菜的女主人。

当如此不同种类的动物的大脑以如此相似的方式工作,在包含许多新成分的情况下,我认为不可能得出任何结论,除了智力是动物的共同属性,它包括“泛化”和更多。很明显,他们以现实的方式把握了形势。这种情况已经形成了他们的意识。有些人可能会说,他们已经“在脑海中模拟了这种情况”,但这足以说明他们了解正在发生的事情。有了这种理解,动机和意图就形成了感知的一部分,因为情况是一个发展的过程。通常,我们说我们“推断”动机和意图,并“推断”可能的结果,但这意味着情况是静态的,而不是与其起源和结果连续的。在现实中,这些理解和期望是直接感知的一部分。这不是“智慧”对“感觉”的作用,而是对环境的把握所固有的智慧。(在拉丁语中,intelligo的意思是“我感知”。我猜想罗马人可能认为,intelligens这个词来源于tele(来自希腊语,或者tela,指网,指经线)和ligo或lego,意思是将遥远或延伸的东西捆绑或收集起来。

这种广义动物智力的观点似乎并不奇怪,除非西方官方哲学史、生物学中的基因决定论学说以及严格使用语言所形成的习惯提供了另一种看待它的方式。动物的简单智能会扰乱所有这些重要的东西,所以必须把所有动物的智能行为作为“纯粹的人格化”来排除。可悲的是,这也意味着人类最聪明的行为也被忽视了。

The cellular development of an organism used to be described as a process in which everything is predetermined by the genes, but the interactions between an embryo and its environment are now known to be crucial in shaping the process of maturation, so that the real organism (the phenotype) doesn't necessarily reflect its genetic make-up (genotype); the term “phenocopy” acknowledges this process.

London taxi drivers were recently found to have an enlargement of part of the hippocampus, compared to the brains of other people, and the difference was greater, in proportion to the time they had been driving taxis. Their brains have been shaped by their activities.

If the brain's cellular anatomy is so radically affected by activity even in adulthood, then the concept of awareness as a process in which consciousness takes its form from the situation shouldn't be problematic. If a bee and a porpoise can draw similar conclusions from similar experiences, then the world is being grasped by both in an objective way.

The environment shapes the organism's response, and the momentary response contributes to the development of the supporting processes and apparatuses. So the ability to respond is the basic question. If the richly grasped situation contains its own implications, there is no need for explaining the ability to perceive those implications in terms of some prearranged neurological code, except for the ability to respond complexly and appropriately. Any specific interpretation or behavior which is predetermined is going to function as an impediment to understanding. Verbal formulations often have the function of creating a stereotyped and inappropriate response.

有机体的细胞发育过去被描述为一个一切都由基因决定的过程,但现在已知胚胎与其环境之间的相互作用在形成成熟过程中是至关重要的。因此,真正的生物体(表型)不一定反映其基因组成(基因型);“表型复制”一词承认了这一过程。

最近,伦敦出租车司机的海马体的一部分被发现比其他人的大脑更大,而且这种差异更大,与他们开出租车的时间成比例。他们的大脑已经被他们的活动所塑造。

如果大脑的细胞结构受到活动的严重影响,即使是在成年时期,那么意识作为意识从环境中获得其形式的过程的概念应该是没有问题的。如果蜜蜂和海豚都能从相似的经历中得出相似的结论,那么世界就被它们以一种客观的方式把握住了。

环境塑造了机体的反应,瞬时反应有助于辅助过程和器械的发展。所以反应能力是最基本的问题。如果这个被充分掌握的情境包含了它本身的含义,那么就没有必要用一些预先安排好的神经密码来解释感知这些含义的能力,除了复杂而适当的反应能力。任何预先确定的特定解释或行为都将成为理解的障碍。口头表达往往会产生一种刻板的、不恰当的反应。

The “genetic epistemologists” confuse their own verbal interpretations with the real ways that understanding develops, and when a child doesn't yet know all of the connotations of a specific word, the psychologist ascribes a pre-logical brain function to the child.3 The similar failure to perceive and to communicate accounts for the foolish things ethologists have said about animal intelligence.

The process in which an organism responds to a situation is continuous with the process of communication. The organism understands that in certain situations a response can be elicited, and so it acts accordingly.

Communication is a response that is directed toward eliciting a response from another. The idea that an animal might have an intention, or a desire to communicate or respond, has been obsessively denied by most official western philosophers, who see that as a uniquely human quality, but some philosophers have even denied that quality to humans. For them, consciousness is a passive receptacle for units of meaning and logic, like a mail bin at the post-office, where letters are received, sorted, and distributed. Maybe computers work that way, but there is nothing in living substance that works like that.

Consciousness is participation, in the sense that there is a response of an organism to events. Even dreams and hallucinations have their implied reference to something real.

“遗传认识论家”混淆了他们自己的口头解释和理解发展的真正方式,当一个孩子还不知道一个特定单词的所有含义时,心理学家把一个前逻辑的大脑功能归因于孩子动物行为学家对动物智力所作的愚蠢论断,也是因为同样的认知和交流的失败。

有机体对某一情境作出反应的过程与沟通的过程是连续的。有机体知道在某些情况下会引起反应,因此它会相应地采取行动。

沟通是一种直接引起对方回应的回应。动物可能有交流或回应的意图或愿望,这一观点被大多数西方哲学家坚决否认,他们认为这是人类独有的品质,但有些哲学家甚至否认人类具有这种品质。对他们来说,意识是意义和逻辑单位的被动容器,就像邮局的邮箱,信件在那里接收、分类和分发。也许计算机是这样工作的,但是在生物体内没有这样的东西。

意识是一种参与,从某种意义上说,生物体对事件有一种反应。甚至梦和幻觉也暗示着真实的东西。

If a violin has been soaked in water, it will sound very odd when it's played. Its various parts won't resonate properly. Similarly, the living substance has to be in a particular state to resonate properly with its environment.

People have proposed that visual experience involves the luminescence of nerves in the optical system. Presumably, similar analogs of events could occur in various tissues when we are conscious of sounds, tastes, smells, etc. But whether or not our auditory nerves are singing when we experience music, no one questions the existence of some sort of responsive activity when we are being conscious of something. Activating certain brain areas will make us conscious of certain things, and that activation can be a response to sensory nerve impulses, or to brain chemicals produced in dreaming or drug-induced hallucinations, or to electrical stimulation, or to the act of remembering.

The history of the prefrontal leukotomy or lobotomy, in which undesirable behaviors were surgically removed, was closely associated with the development of surgical treatments for epilepsy.

Natalya Bekhtereva was exploring alternative treatments for epilepsy, implanting fine wire electrodes into the abnormal parts of the brain, and surrounding areas, to discover the nature of the electrical events that were associated with the seizures. In the process, she discovered that meanings and intentions corresponded to particular electrical patterns. She found that giving certain kinds of stimulation to healthy parts of the brain could stimulate the development of ways of functioning that by-passed the seizure-prone parts of the brain. Extending this, seeing that creating new patterns of nervous activity could overcome sickness, she proposed that creativity, the activation of the brain in new ways, would itself be therapeutic. Some people, such as Stanislav Grof, advocated the therapeutic use of LSD with a rationale that seems similar, for example to overcome chronic pain by changing its meaning, putting it into a different relation to the rest of experience. “In general, psychedelic therapy seems to be most effective in the treatment of alcoholics, narcotic-drug addicts, depressed patients, and individuals dying of cancer.” 2 Since LSD shifts the balance away from serotonin dominance toward dopamine dominance, its effect can be to erase the habits of learned helplessness. Stress and pain also leave their residue in the endorphin system, and the anti-opiates such as naloxone can relieve depression, improve memory, and restore disturbed pituitary functions, for example leading to the restoration of menstrual rhythms interrupted by stress or aging. The amazing speed with which young animals can solve problems is undoubtedly a reflection of their metabolic vigor, and it is probably partly because they haven't yet experienced the paralysis that can result from repeated or prolonged and inescapable stress. Many of the factors responsible for the metabolic intensity of youth can be used therapeutically, even after dullness has developed. The right balance of amino acids and carbohydrates, and the avoidance of the antimetabolic unsaturated fatty acids, can make a great difference in mental functioning, even though we still don't know what the ideal formulas are.

如果把小提琴浸在水里,演奏时听起来会很奇怪。它的各个部分不能正确地共振。同样,生物必须处于特定的状态才能与环境产生适当的共鸣。

人们提出视觉体验涉及到光学系统中神经的发光。据推测,当我们意识到声音、味道、气味等时,各种组织中可能会发生类似的事件。但是,无论我们的听觉神经在我们体验音乐时是否在唱歌,没有人会质疑,当我们意识到某事时,某种反应活动的存在。激活大脑的某些区域会让我们意识到某些事情,而这种激活可能是对感觉神经脉冲、做梦或药物引起的幻觉中产生的大脑化学物质、电刺激或记忆行为的一种反应。

前额叶白质切除术或额叶切除术的历史与癫痫外科治疗的发展密切相关。

Natalya Bekhtereva正在探索癫痫病的替代治疗方法,将精细的电极丝植入大脑的异常部位和周围区域,以发现与癫痫发作相关的电活动的本质。在这个过程中,她发现意义和意图与特定的电模式相对应。她发现,对大脑的健康部分进行某种刺激,可以刺激大脑功能的发展,从而绕过大脑中容易发作的部分。在看到创造新的神经活动模式可以战胜疾病后,她进一步提出,创造力,即以新的方式激活大脑,本身就具有治疗作用。有些人,比如斯坦尼斯拉夫·格罗夫,提倡使用LSD治疗,理由似乎很相似,比如通过改变慢性疼痛的含义,将其与其他经验建立不同的关系,来克服慢性疼痛。“总的来说,迷幻疗法似乎对酗酒者、毒品成瘾者、抑郁症患者和即将死于癌症的人最有效。”由于LSD将平衡从血清素主导转向了多巴胺主导,它的作用可以消除习得性无助的习惯。压力和疼痛也会在内啡肽系统中留下残留物,而像纳洛酮这样的抗阿片类药物可以缓解抑郁,改善记忆,恢复紊乱的脑垂体功能,例如恢复因压力或衰老而中断的月经节律。幼小动物解决问题的惊人速度无疑反映了它们的新陈代谢活力,这可能部分是因为它们还没有经历过反复或长期不可避免的压力所导致的瘫痪。许多导致青少年代谢强度的因素可以用于治疗,甚至在迟钝发展之后。氨基酸和碳水化合物的适当平衡,以及对抗代谢不饱和脂肪酸的避免,可以对心理功能产生很大的影响,即使我们仍然不知道理想的配方是什么。

While chemical – nutritional – hormonal approaches can help to restore creativity, the work of people like Bekhtereva shows that the exercise of creativity can help to restore biochemical and physiological systems to more normal functioning. Learning new general principles or new languages can be creatively restorative.

虽然化学-营养-激素的方法可以帮助恢复创造力,但像贝克捷列娃这样的人的工作表明,创造力的锻炼可以帮助恢复生化和生理系统更正常的功能。学习新的通用原则或新的语言可以创造性地修复。

NOTES AND REFERENCES

1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000 Apr 11;97(8):4398-403. Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Maguire EA, Gadian DG, Johnsrude IS, Good CD, Ashburner J, Frackowiak RS, Frith CD. Structural MRIs of the brains of humans with extensive navigation experience, licensed London taxi drivers, were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects who did not drive taxis. The posterior hippocampi of taxi drivers were significantly larger relative to those of control subjects. A more anterior hippocampal region was larger in control subjects than in taxi drivers. Hippocampal volume correlated with the amount of time spent as a taxi driver (positively in the posterior and negatively in the anterior hippocampus). These data are in accordance with the idea that the posterior hippocampus stores a spatial representation of the environment and can expand regionally to accommodate elaboration of this representation in people with a high dependence on navigational skills. It seems that there is a capacity for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands.

研究人员分析了具有丰富导航经验的伦敦出租车司机的大脑结构核磁共振成像,并将其与不开出租车的对照组进行了比较。出租车司机的后海马明显大于对照组。与出租车司机相比,对照组的海马前部区域更大。海马体积与当出租车司机的时间相关(海马后部为正,海马前部为负)。这些数据与后海马体储存环境空间表征的观点是一致的,并可以区域扩展,以适应高度依赖导航技能的人对这种表征的细化。看起来,健康成人的大脑结构中有一种对环境需求作出反应的局部可塑性改变的能力。

2. (“History of LSD Therapy,” Stanislav Grof, M.D. Chapter 1 of LSD Psychotherapy, ©1980, 1994 by Stanislav Grof. Hunter House Publishers, Alameda, California, ISBN 0-89793-158-0).

3. There is an example of this argument about the nature of reasoning in New Scientist magazine, December 9, 2000. P. Johnson-Laird found that more than 99% of Princeton University students were unable to solve a logical puzzle correctly. Ira Noveck of the Claude Bernard University in Lyon believes this may result simply from people's difficulty interpreting the language of the puzzles.

在2000年12月9日的《新科学家》杂志上有一个关于推理本质的争论的例子。约翰逊-莱尔德发现,普林斯顿大学超过99%的学生不能正确解决逻辑难题。里昂克劳德伯纳德大学的Ira Noveck认为,这可能仅仅是因为人们难以解释谜题的语言。

Fiziol Cheloveka 2000 Mar-Apr;26(2):5-9 [The cerebral organization of creativity. I. The development of a psychological test]. Starchenko MG, Vorob'ev VA, Kliucharev VA, Bekhtereva NP, Medevedev SV.

Fiziol Cheloveka 1998 Jul-Aug;24(4):55-63 [Brain processing of visually presented verbal stimuli at different levels of their integration. II. The orthographic and syntactic aspects]. Vorob'ev VA, Korotkov AD, Pakhomov SV, Rozhdestvenskii DG, Rudas MS, Bekhtereva NP, Medvedev SV.

Neurosci Behav Physiol 1986 Jul-Aug; 16(4):333-9 The systemic approach to the stability and plasticity of neurophysiological processes during adaptive brain activity. Vasilevskii VN The problem of the stability and adaptability of regulatory processes is considered, taking as a point of departure N. P. Bekhtereva's theory regarding stable pathological states, and inflexible and adaptable links in control systems. The need to introduce a probabilistic approach is emphasized. Generalizations are made on materials relating to the connectability of the separate components of the biorhythms of functional systems, and to the stability of their amplitude-frequency characteristics. The corpus of facts permitted the successful development in clinical practice of functional biocontrol and feedback.

适应性脑活动中神经生理过程的稳定性和可塑性的系统方法。以N. P. Bekhtereva关于稳定病理状态的理论和控制系统中不灵活和可适应的环节为出发点,考虑了调节过程的稳定性和适应性问题。强调了引入概率方法的必要性。归纳的材料与功能系统的生物节律的独立组成部分的连接性和它们的振幅-频率特性的稳定性有关。事实的主体允许成功发展临床实践的功能性生物控制和反馈。

Neurosci Behav Physiol 1986 Jul-Aug; 16(4):322-33. A study of the connectedness among distant neuronal populations in the human brain during mental activity. Bekhtereva NP, Medvedev SV, Krol EM In this article, we present the results of a study of connectedness among distant neuronal populations in human deep-brain structures. The time characteristics involved and the stability of the connections between different neuronal populations during monotonous mental activity are discussed. We show that a stable connectedness does correlate with mental activity; however, the connections themselves do not correlate with one another. We also show that the individual connections, the elements of the system which make mental activity possible, can function with various degrees of rigidity or flexibility.

我们提出了一项关于人类大脑深部结构中遥远神经元群体之间连接的研究结果。讨论了单一心理活动中不同神经元群间连接的时间特性和稳定性。我们发现稳定的连通性确实与心理活动相关;然而,这些联系本身并不相互关联。我们还表明,个体的联系,系统的元素,使精神活动成为可能,可以以不同程度的刚性或灵活性运行。

Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 1986;289(5):1276-80 [Physiologic role of changes in the human neuron discharge rate during a single mental act]. Bekhtereva NP, Gogolitsyn IuL, Pakhomov SV.

Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 1985;285(5):1233-5 [Neurons-detectors of errors in subcortical structures of human brain]. Bekhtereva NP, Kropotov IuD, Ponomarev VA.

Neurosci Behav Physiol 1985 Jan-Feb;15(1):27-32 Bioelectrical correlates of protective mechanisms of the brain. Bekhtereva NP.

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova 1984 Aug;70(8):1092-9 [Neurochemical aspects of therapeutic electric stimulation]. Bekhtereva NP, Dambinova SA, Gurchin FA, Smirnov VM, Korol'kov AV. Comparative analysis of the CSF and blood protein-peptide composition in Parkinsonian patients performed with the aid of indwelled electrodes prior to and after therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) of the brain subcortical structures, revealed a therapeutic effect in the form of reduced muscular rigidity and a mental activation with a positive emotional response. After the TES the protein content in the biological fluids tended to become normalized and the the range of low-molecular protein-peptide fractions changed. A high-performance liquid chromatography, bidimensional electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography revealed about 5-6 factors of peptide nature with the molecular mass less than 5000 daltons in the CSF and blood after the TES. These factors were shown to exert a biological effect upon muscle preparation of the leech.

帕金森病患者脑皮质下结构治疗性电刺激前后脑脊液和血液蛋白肽组成的比较分析揭示了一种治疗效果,以减少肌肉僵硬和积极的情绪反应的精神激活的形式。经TES处理后,生物体液中的蛋白质含量趋于归一化,低分子蛋白肽组分的范围发生变化。经高效液相色谱、双向电泳和薄层色谱分析,在脑脊液和血液中发现5-6个分子质量小于5000道尔顿的肽性质因子。这些因素对水蛭的肌肉制备有生物学作用。

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova 1984 Jul;70(7):892-903 [Relationships of distantly located neuronal populations in the human brain in the realization of the thinking process]. Bekhtereva NP, Medvedev SV, Krol' EM The time characteristics of the interneuronal connections as well as interrelationships among distant neuronal populations of the human brain deep structures were studied during monotonous mental activity. It was shown that stable interrelationships could be considered as a correlate of mental activity though the connections themselves were not of the correlative nature. These connections, being the elements of the activity–maintaining system, could be of various degree of rigidity.

研究了单一心理活动时人脑深层结构神经元间连接的时间特征以及遥远神经元群之间的相互关系。研究表明,稳定的相互关系可以被认为是心理活动的相关关系,尽管这些联系本身并不具有相关性。这些连接,作为活动-维持系统的要素,可能具有不同程度的刚性。

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova 1984 Jul;70(7):881-91 [Reflection of the semantic characteristics of the thinking process in the impulse activity of neurons]. Bekhtereva NP The paper deals with the progress in research into the problem of reflection of semantic characteristics of psychological tests in impulse activity of neurons and neuronal assemblies. The high dynamicity of brain correlates of thinking in most brain zones is stressed. Advantages and limits of different technical approaches as well as the most urgent tasks to be solved are discussed.

本文介绍了心理测验的语义特征在神经元脉冲活动和神经元组合中的反映问题的研究进展。在大脑的大多数区域,大脑思考的高度动态关联是强调的。讨论了不同技术途径的优势和局限性,以及亟待解决的问题。

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova 1984 Jul;70(7):1071-5 [Natal'ia Petrovna Bekhtereva]. Iliukhina VA Biography

Hum Physiol 1982 Sep-Oct;8(5):303-16 Cerebral organization of emotional reactions and states. Bekhtereva NP, Kambarova DK, Ivanov GG

Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1980;80(8):1127-33 [Bioelectric correlates of the brain's protective mechanisms]. Bekhtereva NP The author substantiates the necessity of searching for new means producing a therapeutic effect on the brain of epileptic patients that would be similar, in principle, to the brain's own protective mechanisms. This can be done, in the author's opinion, on the basis of studying the most probable bioelectric equivalents of the protective mechanisms. The author suggests a new method for suppressing the epileptogenic focus. This suppression, close to the physiological one, is effected by applying a weak sinusoidal current to the focus via intracerebrally implanted electrodes. Data on the suppression of the epileptiform activity within the zone of the current application, as well as data confirming the local character of the current action are presented. The place of the new method in the system of complex therapy, particularly of epilepsy, is determined with consideration of the role of the stable pathological state. Probable neurophysiological mechanisms of the sinusoidal current action on the epileptogenic focus are discussed.

作者证实了寻找新的治疗方法的必要性,这种方法在原则上与大脑本身的保护机制相似,能对癫痫患者的大脑产生治疗效果。在作者看来,这可以在研究保护机制中最可能的生物电等效物的基础上完成。作者提出了一种抑制致痫灶的新方法。这种抑制与生理抑制相似,是通过植入大脑的电极对焦点施加微弱的正弦电流来实现的。在当前应用的区域内抑制癫痫样活动的数据,以及确认当前动作的局部特征的数据被提出。新方法在复杂治疗体系中的地位,特别是癫痫,是考虑到稳定的病理状态的作用而确定的。讨论了正弦电流作用于致痫灶的可能的神经生理机制。

Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR 1979;(7):30-7 [Potentials of neurophysiology in the study of a resistant pathological state]. Bekhtereva NP

Act Nerv Super (Praha) 1976;18(3):157-67 The neurophysiological code of simplest mental processes in man. Bekhtereva NP

Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR 1975;(8):8-19 [Cerebral organization of human emotions]. Bekhtereva NP, Smirnov VM

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova 1973 Dec;59(12):1785-802 [Principles of the organization of the structure of the space-time code of short-term verbal memory]. Bekhtereva NP, Bundzen PV, Kaidel VD, David EE.

Vopr Neirokhir 1972 Jan-Feb;36(1):7-12 [Therapeutic electric stimulation of deep brain structures]. Bekhtereva NP, Bondarchuk AN, Smirnov VM, Meliucheva LA

Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR 1972;27(9):43-9 [Principles of functional organization of the human brain]. [Article in Russian] Bekhtereva NP.

Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova 1971 Dec;57(12):1745-61 [Functional reorganization of the activity of human brain neuron populations during short-term verbal memory]. Bekhtereva NP, Bundzen PV, Matveev IuK, Kaplunovskii AS

From a biography by the Archives Jean Piaget: “His researches in developmental psychology and genetic epistemology had one unique goal: how does knowledge grow? His answer is that the growth of knowledge is a progressive construction of logically embedded structures superseding one another by a process of inclusion of lower less powerful logical means into higher and more powerful ones up to adulthood. Therefore, children's logic and modes of thinking are initially entirely different from those of adults.”

皮亚杰(Jean Piaget)在其传记中写道:“他在发展心理学和遗传认识论方面的研究有一个独特的目标:知识是如何增长的?他的答案是,知识的增长是一个逐步构建的、逻辑上嵌入的结构,通过将较低的、不那么有力的逻辑手段纳入更高、更有力的手段的过程,这些结构相互取代。因此,儿童的逻辑和思维方式最初与成人完全不同。”

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/intuitive-knowledge.shtml

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